I knew that when I first decided to determine how dual language strategies could help my math students succeed I was going to have to collaborate with others. I have talked with my site administrator and others in my school who implement dual language in their classrooms. However, the following resources were very informative and I enjoyed reading about the many strategies that other math teachers have used and which ones have worked. There were so many resources out there but many did not help me out. Here are a few that will.
(1) Howard, E. R., & Christian, D. (2002). Two-way immersion 101: Designing and implementing a two-way immersion education program at the elementary level. Santa Cruz: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence, University of California, Santa Cruz.
Two-way immersion is an educational approach that integrates English first speakers and ELL students for content and literacy instruction in both languages. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the key issues and fundamental characteristics for the implementation of a successful program. Some keys to success: classrooms should include teachers who are native speakers and possess native-like proficiency in the language of instruction, cooperative learning techniques that give students multiple opportunities to engage in conversation with each other, and content must be comprehensible to ELL students while at the same time providing a challenging learning experience.
(2) Abedi, J.; Courtney, M.; Leon, S.; Kao, J.; & Azzam, T. (n.d.). English Language Learners and Math Achievement: A Study of Opportunity to Learn and Language Accommodation. National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.
Studies have suggested that ELL students have more difficulty responding to test items that are linguistically complex. Studies have shown that simplifying the language of test items helps improve the performance of ELL students without compromising the validity of the assessment. Accommodations can either refer to specific modifications to the test itself, or modifications to the test procedure. Modifications to the test include: assessments in the student’s home language; modification of linguistic complexity; and embedding glossaries into the test for non-content vocabulary. Modifications to the test procedure include: allowing extended time for the test; having the test administrator read the test directions aloud; and allowing administration by a familiar test administrator.
(3) Carrasquillo, Angela, M.D.; et al (n.d.). Promising Instructional Practices for Secondary English Language Learners. Office of Bilingual Education and Foreign Language Studies.
ELL students bring to their classrooms their powerful native languages. Secondary schools will meet the needs of their ELL population by adopting the following effective instructional and programmatic practices: content courses such as history, science and math should be taught using the approach of integrating language and content; these courses are better taught through language and themes; ELL’s instruction and academic development is enhanced by the use of technology; and secondary school content needs to be culturally relevant to students.
(4) Mathematics: Strategies for Teaching Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students. April 2004. Virginia Department of Education: Division of Instruction
The purpose of the document is to provide mathematics teachers with a brief overview of second language acquisition theory and suggest effective strategies for differentiating instruction for limited English proficient (LEP) students. One of the performance goals of NCLB requires LEP students to become proficient in English while reaching high academic achievement standards in reading/language arts and mathematics. Some strategies utilized are as follows: contextual clues, verbal interaction, active participation, step-by-step instructions and asking for student clarification, allow students to talk to peers in their native language, keep bilingual picture dictionaries, integrate writing through the use of journals, use of visuals, and designing hands-on-activities.
(5) Winsor, Matthew S. (2008). Bridging the Language Barrier in Mathematics. Mathematics Teacher. Vol. 101. No. 5. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
The purpose of this article was to find ways to help ELL students learn mathematics by researching how one learns a new language and how one learns mathematics. Three similarities were discovered: they write to communicate what they are learning, they learn in groups, they learn in real-life settings. The author created Mathematics as a Second Language (MSL), whose main components are vocabulary activities, journals, group work, and projects.